Sunday, May 24, 2020

Chemistry Abbreviations Starting with Letters J or K

Chemistry abbreviations and acronyms are used throughout science. These are abbreviations and acronyms beginning with the letters J and K used in chemistry and chemical engineering. Abbreviations and Acronyms Beginning with J J - JouleJAC - Journal of Analytical ChemistryJAW - Just Add WaterJBC - Journal of Biological ChemistryJCG - Journal of Crystal GrowthJCS - Journal of the Chemical SocietyJOC - Journal of Organic Chemistry Abbreviations and Acronyms Beginning with K k - Boltzmann constantK - Kelvink - kiloK - PotassiumKa - Acid dissociation constantKd - Dissociation constantKE - Kinetic EnergyKeq - Equilibrium constantkg - kilogramKGA - KetoGlutaric AcidkHz - kilohertzkm - kilometerKMT - Kinetic Molecular TheoryKr - KryptonKTM - Kinetic Thermal MixingkW - kilowatt

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Applying To Dental School - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 26 Words: 7934 Downloads: 1 Date added: 2017/09/21 Category Advertising Essay Type Argumentative essay Tags: School Essay Did you like this example? APPLYING TO DENTAL SCHOOL CHAPTER 2 A s you prepare to apply to dental school, you will find it helpful to become acquainted with the usual educational curriculum, typical admissions requirements, and the application process. This chapter offers essential information about these topics, organized into four sections: The Dental School Program provides an overview of the basic educational curriculum at most schools, recognizing that each dental school has its own mission and distinguishing features; Qualifying for Dental school reviews the typical numbers of students involved in applying to and attending dental schools and summarizes general admission requirements; The Application Process describes the steps of applying to dental school; and Special Admissions Topics addresses the special topics of advanced standing and transferring, combined degree programs, and admissions for international students. THE DENTAL SCHOOL PROGRAM A common goal of all dental school programs is t o produce graduates who are: ? Competently educated in the basic biological and clinical sciences. ? Capable of providing quality dental care to all segments of the population. Committed to high moral and professional standards in their service to the public. The traditional dental school program requires four academic years of study, often organized as described below. Since there is wide variation in the focus and organization of the curricula of dental schools, the schools’ descriptions in Part II of this guide show the specifics of courses of study that won’t be covered here. ? Years One and Two Students generally spend the major part of the first two years studying the biological sciences to learn about the structure and function of the human body and its diseases. Students also receive instruction about basic sciences such as human anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, microbiology, and harmacology and dentally oriented biological sciences such as oral anatomy, oral pathology, and oral histology. In many dental schools, first and second year students learn about providing health care to diverse populations. They also learn the basic principles of oral diagnosis and treatment and begin mastery of dental treatment procedures through practice on models of the mouth and teeth. In many programs, students begin interacting with patients and provide basic oral heath care. ? Years Three and Four The focus of the final two years of dental school generally concentrates on clinical study. Clinical training, which is broad in scope, is designed to provide competence in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of oral diseases and disorders. Students apply basic principles and techniques involved in oral diagnosis, treatment planning, restorative dentistry, periodontics, oral surgery, orthodontics, pediatric dentistry, prosthodontics, endodontics, and other types of treatment through direct patient care. They learn to attend to chronically ill, disabled , special care, and geriatric patients and children. In addition, 13 ADEA OFFICIAL GUIDE TO DENTAL SCHOOLS dental schools provide instruction in practice management and in working effectively with allied dental personnel to provide dental care. During these two years, students may rotate through various clinics of the dental school to treat patients under the supervision of clinical instructors. They often have an opportunity to acquire additional clinical experience in hospitals and other off-campus, community settings. These experiences give students an appreciation for the team approach to health care delivery through their association with other health professionals and health professions students. As dental school curricula are designed to meet the anticipated needs of the public, every school continues to modify its curriculum to achieve a better correlation between the basic and clinical sciences. In clinical training, there is increased emphasis on providing comprehensive patient care—a method of training that permits a student to meet all the patient’s needs within the student’s existing levels of competence. Widespread efforts also are being made to integrate new subject matter into the curriculum and to allow students free time for elective study, participation in research, and community service. The D. M. D. and the D. D. S. re equivalent degrees that are awarded to dental students upon completion of the same types of programs. QUALIFYING FOR DENTAL SCHOOL At least 59 U. S. and ten Canadian dental schools will be accepting applications to the first year of their Doctor of Dental Medicine (D. M. D. ) or Doctor of Dental Surgery (D. D. S. ) programs in 2011–12. The D. M. D. and the D. D. S. are equivalent degrees that are awarded to dental students upon completion of the same types of programs. ? Numbers of Applicants and Enrollees More than 19,000 students participated in D. M. D. and D. D. S. programs in the United St ates in 2008-09; of those, 4,794 were enrolled as first-year students. Of the 12,178 individuals who applied for admission, 39% were enrolled. Women comprised 47% of the applicants and 44% of the enrollees in 2008. Black/African Americans, Hispanic/Latinos, and Native Americans comprised 11. 8% of the applicants and 12. 3% of the enrollees in 2008. These underrepresented minority figures are expected to increase in the future. In Canada, approximately 1,598 students were enrolled in predoctoral dental school programs in 2008-09. Of these 454 were first-year students. See Table 2-1 for a comparison of the number of dental school applicants to the number enrolled for the 2008–09 academic year. ? General Admission Requirements Dental schools consider many factors when deciding which applicants to accept into their programs. Utilizing â€Å"whole† application review, admissions committees assess biographical and academic information provided by the applicant and by t he undergraduate and graduate schools the applicant attended. These committees generally also assess the applicant’s results from the Dental Admission Test (DAT), grade point average (GPA), additional information provided in the application, letters of evaluation, and interviews. All U. S. dental schools require students to take the DAT (all Canadian dental schools require students to take the Canadian Dental Aptitude Test), but other admission requirements vary from school to school. For example, differences may exist in the areas of undergraduate courses required, interview policies, and state residency requirements. Each school’s individual requirements are specified in Part II of this guide. TABLE 2-1. TOTAL U. S. DENTAL SCHOOL APPLICANTS AND FIRST-YEAR ENROLLEES, FOR CLASS ENTERING FALL 2008 Total* Male/Female White African Hispanic/ Native American/ Asian/Pacific Other Not American Latino Alaska Native Islander Reported Applicants Enrollees 12,178 4,794 6,502/ 5,663 2,673/2,120 6,747 2,832 734 267 633 279 77 41 2,962 1,056 742 231 283 88 *Sum of applicants and enrollees by gender do not add to total number of applicants and enrollees because a small number did not provide this information. Source: American Dental Education Association, Applicant Analysis for the 2008 Entering Class. 14 CHAPTER 2 APPLYING TO DENTAL SCHOOL Although most schools state that they require a minimum of at least two years (60 semester hours) or three years (90 semester hours) of undergraduate education (also called â€Å"predental education†), the majority of students admitted to dental school will have earned a bachelor’s degree prior to the start of dental school. Of all U. S. students entering dental schools, more than 90% have completed four or more years of college, less than 1% have just the minimum two-year requirement, and about 8% have graduate training. Individuals pursuing dental careers should take certain science courses. However, you do not have to be a science major to gain admission to a dental school and successfully complete the program. As shown in Table 2-2, most dental students are science majors as undergraduates, but many major in fields not related to science. ? ADEA Admissions Guidelines As the primary dental education association in North America, the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) has developed guidelines addressing dental school admission. Although adhering to the guidelines is voluntary, member institutions (which include all U. S. and Canadian dental schools) are encouraged to follow these guidelines as they consider and accept applicants to their schools. The guidelines are as follows: ? ADEA encourages dental schools to accept students from all walks of life who, on the basis of past and predicted performance, appear qualified to become competent dental professionals. ? ADEA further encourages dental schools to use, whenever possible as part of the admissions process, a co nsistently applied assessment of an applicant’s nonacademic attributes. ? ADEA urges dental schools to grant final acceptance only to students who have completed at least two years of postsecondary education and have taken the DAT. ? ADEA further suggests that dental schools encourage applicants to earn their baccalaureate degrees before entering dental school. The recommendation for at least two years of postsecondary education may be waived for students accepted at a dental school under an early selection program. Under these programs, there is a formal and published agreement between a dental school and an undergraduate institution that gives a student, at some time before the completion of the predental curriculum, guaranteed admisTABLE 2-2. UNDERGRADUATE MAJORS OF DENTAL SCHOOL APPLICANTS AND ENROLLEES, sion to the dental school. Admission is 2008-09 dependent upon successful completion of Predental Major Percent of Percent of Percent Rate the dental school’s e ntrance requirements Applicants Enrollees of Enrollment and normal application procedures. ADEA recommends that dental schools notify applicants, either orally or in writing, of provisional or final acceptance on or after December 1 of the academic year prior to the academic year of matriculation. ? ADEA further recommends that: – Applicants accepted on or after December 1 be given at least 45 days to reply to the offer. – Applicants who have been accepted on or after January 1, the minimum response period should be 30 days. Biological Science Engineering Math/Computer Science Social Sciences Business Education Language/Humanities/Arts Predental Other Major No Major/Major Not Reported 50. 5% 14. 6% 2. 4% 1. 1% 1. 2% 4. 3% . 7% 3. 8% 14. 3% 4. 0% 3. 2% 51. 5% 15. 2% 2. 7% 1. 1% 1. 2% 4. 5% . 6% 3. 8% 13. 0% 4. % 2. 4% 40. 1% 41. 0% 44. 3% 42. 2% 38. 9% 41. 5% 34. 5% 39. 6% 35. 7% 39. 1% 14. 3% Chemistry/Physical Science Source: American Dental Education Association, App licant Analysis Report for the 2008 Entering Class 15 ADEA OFFICIAL GUIDE TO DENTAL SCHOOLS – Applicants accepted on or after February 1, the minimum waiting period can be reduced to 15 days. ? ADEA believes that dental schools are justified in asking for an immediate response from applicants accepted after July 15, or two weeks before the beginning of the academic year, whichever comes first. ? Response periods are subject to change. Be sure to consult schools’ websites for any updates. Finally, ADEA recommends that dental schools encourage a close working relationship between their admissions and financial aid staff in order to counsel dental students early and effectively on their financial obligations. THE APPLICATION PROCESS The dental school application process involves a number of procedures but is easily followed once you learn what is needed. This section explains how the application process works in general, recognizing that specific details may vary somewhat from school to school. Once you have a basic framework, you will find it easier to adapt to these variations. There are three main steps in the application process: ? Take the DAT (for Canadian schools, the Canadian Dental Aptitude Test). In the vast majority of cases, submit a centralized application form to ADEA’s Associated American Dental Schools Application Service (AADSAS). (As of November 1, 2009, three of the 59 U. S. dental schools do not participate in AADSAS. ) ? Acquire and submit institution-specific materials. Following is a brief description of each step and whom you should contact for more information. This section concludes with advice on how to effectively manage the timing of the application process. Always remember that the application process for an individual school may vary from this general information; see Part II of this guide for specific application requirements by school. Not sure what to write about in your essay? Consider these ideas. The AA DSAS application requires a personal essay on why you wish to pursue a dental education. Where do you start? Put yourself in the shoes of the admissions committees that read application essays. They are looking for individuals who are motivated, academically prepared, articulate, socially conscious, and knowledgeable about the profession. What can you tell admissions committees about yourself that will make you stand out? Here are some possible topics for your essay: ? How did you become interested in studying dentistry? Be honest! If you knew you wanted to be a dentist from the age of six, that’s fine, but if you didn’t, that’s all right too. Explain how you discovered dentistry as a career possibility and what you have done to research the career. Admissions committees are looking for how well thoughtout your career plans are. ? What have you done to demonstrate your interest in dentistry? Have you observed or worked in dental offices? Have you talked to pr acticing dentists? How good of an understanding do you have of general dental practice? How do you envision yourself utilizing your dental degree? ? What have you done to demonstrate your commitment to helping others? ? Do you have any special talents or leadership skills that could be transferable to the practice of dentistry? Have you benefited from any special experiences such as participating in research, internships, etc.? ? Did you have to work to pay for your education? How has that made you a stronger applicant? ? Have you had to overcome hardships or obstacles to get where you are today? How has this influenced your motivation for advanced education? ? Take the DAT All U. S. dental schools require applicants to take the Dental Admission Test (DAT). The DAT is designed to measure general academic ability, comprehension of scientific information, and perceptual ability. This half-day, multiple-choice exam is conducted by the American Dental Association (ADA). It is a compu ter-based test given at Prometric Testing Centers in various sites around the country on almost any day of the year. Candidates for the DAT should have completed prerequisite courses in biology, general chemistry, and organic chemistry. These tips are provided by Anne Wells, Ed. D. , ADEA Associate Executive Director for the Division of Education Pathways and former Associate Dean for Admissions, University of Louisville School of Dentistry. 16 CHAPTER 2 APPLYING TO DENTAL SCHOOL STUDENT PROFILE What are you doing now? I’m in my fourth year of dental school and working in the school’s clinic. We get a phenomenal amount of clinical experience at Baylor. I think you need to be competent in a wide range of dental procedures because there are a lot of people with needs who won’t be able to go to a specialist. I’ve also done several externships over the summer in dental clinics in Alaska and underserved areas in Texas. What are your short-term and long-term goals? After dental school, I’m going to move with my family to Alaska to practice. When you first get into dentistry you hear a lot about the oral health care issues in Alaska. I did an externship with the Indian Health Service (IHS) where I visited an island called Mekuryok and saw them first-hand. I didn’t choose dentistry solely for financial reasons. I want to make sure that the investment I make in my education and talents are helping people with access to care issues. At the end of your third and fourth years you start to realize how many options are available to dental graduates. I think more people would become interested in the profession if they knew about them. In the long-term, I’d like to try to open a dental school in Alaska to help address the access to care issues. Advice to applicants and first-years. People say applying is a game. You have to figure out what the school is looking for and be that person. But just be yourself. You’re often at dental school more than you’re at home. You’ll excel in a dental school that fits your personality. My top choice actually became my last choice during the interview process. I ended up choosing the school that was looking for the type of person that I felt comfortable being. First-year students may be overwhelmed with the coursework. There are a lot of number one students at dental school who haven’t gotten less than an A since third grade. Students end up getting some low grades because of the rigorous academic demands. You have to overcome that and pick your battles. If you have 13 exams in one week you can’t learn all of the material. I chose to learn what I needed to learn to be a good competent dentist. What do you view as the most interesting issue in dentistry? The Dental Health Aide Therapist (DHAT) and access to care issue in Alaska. It’s easy for people to be opposed to a program they don’t know much about, but when you go up there and see the actual oral health care needs you understand it better. The programs aren’t perfect, but the concern is competent care for the patient. I can’t say that I am entirely in favor of the DHAT program, but I definitely better understand the basis for its creation. It’s better to get some treatment than no treatment. What is the last good book you read? I recently read Mountains Beyond Mountains: Healing the World: The Quest of Dr. Paul Farmer by Tracy Kidder. It follows the life of a physician who dedicates his time to treating underserved populations in Haiti and Peru. His story shows there is more to treating patients than money and prestige. I would recommend it to any health professional. What to you do for balance in your life? I’m a very social person and like to be active. I play volleyball with a group once a week and basketball on Saturday mornings. Any time outside of that is spent with my family. Are you married/partn ered/single? Any children? I’m married and have two children, a two year old son and four year old daughter. They definitely don’t make dental school easy, but they make it worth it. ADAM WEAVER FOURTH-YEAR DENTAL STUDENT BAYLOR COLLEGE OF DENTISTRY HOMETOWN: EL PASO, TEXAS Why Dentistry? There were a few reasons I chose dentistry. I actually decided when I was 14 that I wanted to be a dentist. My friend’s dad was an endodontist. I saw that the profession offered him a lot of time to spend with his family, and I wanted to make sure that I would some day be available for my own family and able to take care of them. I’m also very involved in my church and dentistry would allow me the ability to serve and give back to the community. Finally, I knew I loved the sciences, working with my hands, and working with people. Advanced level biology and physics are not required. Most applicants complete two or more years of college before taking the exam. ADEA stro ngly encourages applicants to prepare for the DAT by reviewing the content of the examination and basic principles of biology and chemistry and taking practice tests. The DAT Candidate’s Guide, the online tutorial, and the application and preparation materials are available in the DAT section of the ADA website at www. ada. org/prof/ed/testing/dat/index. asp. The ADA suggests that applicants take the DAT well in advance of their intended dental school enrollment and at least one year prior to when they hope to enter dental school. See Table 3-3 in this guide for an overview of individual schools’ requirements regarding the DAT, including the average scores of enrollees and timelines that will help you schedule the DAT. You should also note that the DAT can be taken a maximum of three times. Applicants who wish to take the DAT more than three times must apply for special permission to take the test again. For details, see the DAT section of the ADA website. The DA T consists of multiple-choice test items presented in the English language and requires four hours and 15 minutes for administration. The four separate parts of the exam cover: ? Natural sciences (biology, general chemistry, and organic chemistry) ? Perceptual ability (two- and three-dimensional problem solving) ? Reading comprehension (dental and basic sciences) ? Quantitative reasoning (mathematical problems in algebra, numerical calculations, conversions, etc. ) 17 ADEA OFFICIAL GUIDE TO DENTAL SCHOOLS Most dental schools view the DAT as one of many factors in evaluating candidates for admission. As a result, the emphasis schools place on different parts of the test varies. Candidates applying to take the DAT must submit application information to the DAT testing program from the DAT section of the ADA website. The fee is $205. After the application and fee payment are processed, the ADA notifies Prometric that the candidate is eligible for DAT testing. At the same time, the c andidate will receive notification from the ADA including instructions on how to register with the Prometric Candidate Contact Center to arrange the day, time, and place to take the DAT at a Prometric Testing Center. A current listing of testing centers is at www. prometric. com/ADA/default. htm. The candidate is eligible to take the test for a 12-month period. If the candidate does not call, register, and take the exam during this period, he or she will have to submit another application and fee in order to take the exam later. Candidates may apply and retake the test up to three times, but they must submit a new application and fee for each re-examination, and the re-examination must be taken at least 90 days after the previous exam. Individuals with disabilities or special needs may request special arrangements for taking the DAT. For details, visit the Special Accommodations section of the Prometric website at www. prometric. com/TestTakers/FAQs/default. htm. The Canadian Dental Association (CDA) and the Association of Canadian Faculties of Dentistry have developed the Dental Aptitude Test for applicants to Canadian dental schools. All Canadian dental schools require the test. For more information, contact the Dental Aptitude Test Program of the Canadian Dental Association (L’Association Dentaire Canadienne), 1815 Alta Vista Drive, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, K1G 3Y6; 615-523-7736; [emailprotected] ca, www. cda-adc. ca. Since many schools have a rolling admissions process and begin to admit highly qualified applicants as early as December 1, applicants are encouraged to submit their applications early. ? Submitting an AADSAS Application ADEA’s AADSAS (pronounced â€Å"add-sass,† the acronym for the Associated American Dental Schools Application Service) is a centralized application service sponsored and administered by ADEA. At least 56 of the 59 U. S. dental schools, including Puerto Rico, participate in AADSAS. One Canadian sch ool also participates in AADSAS. The Application The ADEA AADSAS application is available online at www. adea. org. The online AADSAS application requires you to submit information: ? Biographical information ? Colleges/universities attended ? Coursework completed and planned prior to enrollment in dental school. ? DAT scores, if available ? Personal statement (essay)—a one-page essay in which you present yourself and your reasons for wanting to attend dental school ? Background information—information about your personal background, including experiences related to the dental profession; extracurricular, volunteer, and community service experiences; honors, awards, and scholarships; and work and research experiences ? Dental school designations—where you select the dental schools that you want to receive your application ? Official transcripts—you will also be required to submit an official transcript from each college or university you have attended to the AADSAS Verification Department ? AADSAS also accepts and distributes letters of evaluation (sometimes called letters of recommendation) with your AADSAS application 18 CHAPTER 2 APPLYING TO DENTAL SCHOOL Submitting your ADEA AADSAS Application: Words of Advice Before you begin the application process: ? Meet with your health professions advisor to discuss the application process, including the timing of application submission and the DAT, services that may be provided by your advisor such as a Pre-Dental Committee Report or other application assistance, and potential dental schools to which you plan to apply. ? Consider the timing of the Dental Admissions Test (DAT). You may submit an ADEA AADSAS application before taking the DAT, but you should know that many schools consider you for admission only after they have received your DAT scores. However, you should also be aware that delaying the submission of an ADEA AADSAS application prior to taking the DAT can result in a late application and can reduce your chances of being accepted for admission. ? Collect copies of all transcripts and have them at hand for your reference. ? Begin to line up individuals who will be providing letters of evaluation early. Be sure to plan around school vacations when faculty advisors may not be available. ? ADEA AADSAS staff strongly recommend that you submit your application well in advance of the deadlines of the schools to which you apply. ? Your application will ask you to indicate the names of individuals who will be providing letters of evaluation on your behalf. While ADEA AADSAS accepts letters in print format, it strongly recommends that letters be electronically submitted. Refer to the instructions for details about submitting letters of evaluation. ? The ADEA AADSAS application becomes available on or around May 15. Watch the ADEA website (www. adea. org) for the start date of the application cycle. After submitting the application: ? Be sure to check with the schools to which you are applying (and their individual entries in this guide) to find out what supplemental materials or fees are required. These must be submitted directly to the school, not to AADSAS. ? Log on to your ADEA AADSAS account to monitor the status of your pplication while it is being processed and after it has been sent to the dental schools. ? Update any changes of address or other contact information in your application at any time in the application process, even after your application has been sent to your designated schools. ? ADEA AADSAS does not retain application information from year to year. Individuals re-applying for admission to dental school must complete a new application each year, including providing new transcripts and letters of evaluation. For further information, visit the ADEA website at www. adea. org, and select the ADEA AADSAS link. Processing the application, including transcript verification, generally takes about one month. Reme mber that your ADEA AADSAS application is not considered complete until ADEA AADSAS receives your online application, fee payment, and official transcripts from every college and university attended. While completing the application ? When you set up your ADEA AADSAS account, you will identify a user name and password. Keep these in a safe yet accessible place. ? Be sure to read all application instructions before you start to fill out the application. ? Any time after you set up your account, you can go back into the application (using your user name and password) to add or change information up until the time you submit it for processing. ? Print the Transcript Matching Form from your application. Request that an official transcript from each college and university you have attended (include transferred coursework posted to later transcripts) be sent to ADEA AADSAS. The Transcript Matching Form must be attached by each college’s registrar to the official transcript and m ailed by the registrar to ADEA AADSAS. Applications are not processed until all official transcripts are received. ? Remember that ADEA AADSAS accepts only official transcripts sent directly from the registrar. ADEA AADSAS does not accept student-issued transcripts. These recommendations were provided by Anne Wells, Ed. D. , and Ms. Chonte James of ADEA AADSAS. Submission Deadlines Applications may be submitted beginning on or around May 15. Each school has a specific application deadline date, which is noted in he online AADSAS application and in the individual school entries in Part II of this guide. Please note that these dates are subject to change; consult each dental school’s website for the most up-to-date information on deadline dates. Your completed application, transcripts, payment, and other required documents must be received by AADSAS no later than the stated deadline of the schools to which you are applying. Since many schools have a rolling admissions process a nd begin to admit highly qualified applicants as early as December 1, applicants are encouraged to submit their applications early. 19 ADEA OFFICIAL GUIDE TO DENTAL SCHOOLS Application Fees Check the AADSAS website for complete information about application fees. Payment may be by check, money order, or credit card (VISA, MasterCard, Discover, or American Express). All fees must be paid in U. S. currency drawn on a U. S. bank or the U. S. Postal Service. AADSAS has a fee reduction program for applicants with demonstrated financial hardship. Details may be obtained on the AADSAS website. AADSAS Schools The schools that use AADSAS are listed by state in Table 2-3. If you are applying only to the schools that do not participate in AADSAS, you should apply directly to those schools. Texas residents applying to Texas dental schools must utilize the Texas Medical and Dental Application Services (TMDSAS), www. utsystem. edu/tmdsas. Graduates of non-ADA accredited dental schools (i. e. n ternational dental school graduates) may be eligible for admission into advanced placement programs offered by many dental schools. International dental graduates may want to refer to ADEA’s Centralized Application for Advanced Placement International Dentists (ADEA CAAPID), located on the ADEA website (www. adea. org) for information about these programs and the application process. Please note that AADSAS serves as an information clearinghouse only. It does not influence any school’s evaluation or selection of applicants, nor does ADEA recommend applicants to dental schools or vice versa. ? Submit any required supplemental application materials Each school has its own policy regarding the payment of a separate application fee and the submission of additional application materials. These materials may include an institution-specific supplemental (or secondary) application form, documentation of dentistry shadowing experience, and official academic transcripts. Part II of this guide briefly reviews each dental school’s application requirements. In addition, the ADEA AADSAS STUDENT PROFILE and fix the problem. I started to realize that my dad was right all along. What are you doing right now? I’m in a hospital residency program at Christiana Hospital. I actually met the Program Director Dr. Robert Arm through ADEA. At the time I wasn’t really thinking about residency programs, but he said to keep an open mind and that you receive great training. At Christiana it’s great to be part of an interdisciplinary team and interface with physicians. I get to be involved in community health aspects. I never do something two days in a row. I may be in a private health center where I see all the dental work I didn’t see in dental school or observe dental specialties and OR dentistry. I’m also a Vice President for the ADEA Council of Students, Residents, and Fellows. What are your short-term and long-term goals? I want to go on to a residency program in pediatric dentistry. I’d like to be in a hospital based practice working with children and patients with special needs and teaching. It can be difficult to address access to care issues in other practice situations. Advice to applicants and first-year students? For applicants, they want to know you know what you’re getting into. Before applying you should have done some shadowing and hopefully more than your own braces. Think about how to take the profession beyond what it is whether it’s working on access to care issues, in research, or developing ways to cure dental anxiety. For first-years, find a mentor. They never find you. I struggled with motivation and spun my wheels a lot. I have a lot of energy and wasn’t sure what to do with it. I needed someone to say why don’t you try this. Time management was huge. Every semester is packed to capacity. You think, â€Å"How can I do more† and the ne xt semester you do. You have to change your study habits. If you miss a couple days, you hate your life. It’s hard to discipline yourself and it was exhausting, but there is a light at the end. What do you do for balance in your life? I do a lot of yoga and trained for a marathon. I also have friends outside of dental school. What is the last good book you read? I read books about travel since I can’t do a lot. I just read a great book on China. What do you view as the most interesting issue in dentistry? The dental profession’s place in healthcare and how to execute it so our profession remains valuable. The definition of access to care is so different depending upon where you are. Some cannot afford it, and some do not value it. It’s important to have early education and a form of health care that takes care of basic needs. Dentistry needs to lead this because no one on the outside truly understands what we do and how we work. Are you married/partner ed/single? Any children? Single MARIA CORDERO, D. M. D. GENERAL PRACTICE RESIDENT CHRISTIANA HOSPITAL Why did you choose dentistry? I spent time trying not to choose dentistry. My father is a dentist, but he’s given me a lot of leeway to find my own path. I always thought dentistry is what my dad did, and I wanted to do something different. But he’s always been so happy. Dentistry allows you to make a diagnosis, treat, 20 CHAPTER 2 APPLYING TO DENTAL SCHOOL TABLE 2-3. DENTAL SCHOOLS PARTICIPATING IN ADEA AADSAS (AS OF NOVEMBER 1, 2009) Alabama Arizona California University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Dentistry Arizona School of Dentistry and Oral Health Midwestern University College of Dental Medicine Loma Linda University School of Dentistry University of California, Los Angeles School of Dentistry University of California, San Francisco School of Dentistry University of the Pacific Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry University of Southern California Sc hool of Dentistry Western University of Health Sciences College of Dental Medicine University of Colorado Denver School of Dental Medicine University of Connecticut School of Dental Medicine Nova Southeastern University College of Dental Medicine University of Florida College of Dentistry Southern Illinois University School of Dental Medicine University of Illinois at Chicago College of Dentistry Indiana University School of Dentistry University of Iowa College of Dentistry University of Kentucky College of Dentistry University of Louisville School of Dentistry Louisiana State University School of Dentistry University of Maryland Baltimore College of Dental Surgery Boston University Henry M. Goldman School of Dental Medicine Harvard School of Dental Medicine Tufts University School of Dental Medicine University of Detroit Mercy School of Dentistry University of Michigan School of Dentistry University of Minnesota School of Dentistry University of Missouri-Kansas City School of De ntistry Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Nova Scotia Nebraska Nevada New Jersey New York Creighton University School of Dentistry University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Dentistry University of Nevada, Las Vegas School of Dental Medicine University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey Columbia University College of Dental Medicine New York University College of Dentistry Stony Brook University School of Dental Medicine University at Buffalo School of Dental Medicine University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Dentistry Case School of Dental Medicine The Ohio State University College of Dentistry University of Oklahoma College of Dentistry Oregon Health Science University School of Dentistry University of Pennsylvania School of Dental Medicine University of Pittsburgh School of Dental Medicine The Maurice H. Kornberg School of Dentistry, Temple University University of Puerto Rico School of Dental Medicine Medical University of South Carolina Coll ege of Dental Medicine Meharry Medical College School of Dentistry Baylor College of Dentistry University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston Dental Branch University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio Dental School Virginia Commonwealth University School of Dentistry University of Washington School of Dentistry West Virginia University School of Dentistry Marquette University School of Dentistry Dalhousie University Faculty of Dentistry Colorado Connecticut Florida Illinois Indiana Iowa Kentucky Louisiana Maryland Massachusetts North Carolina Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania District of Columbia Howard University College of Dentistry Puerto Rico South Carolina Tennessee Texas Michigan Minnesota Missouri Application website includes a chart that identifies the supplemental requirements for the participating schools. Note that this information is subject to change; consult dental schools’ websites for most up-to-date requirements. After you have submitted all of your materials, the dental schools that wish to consider you for a place in the entering class will contact you for a visit to the campus. This visit will likely include an interview with the admissions committee, a tour of the campus and facilities, meetings with faculty and students, and other meetings and activities. When you visit a dental school, the admissions committee is evaluating you as a prospective student, while at the same time, you will have the opportunity to evaluate the dental school program and environment to determine if you think it would be a good fit for you and your goals. ? Manage the Timing of the Application Process The trick to managing the timing of the application process is summed up in two words: DON’T PROCRASTINATE! Most dental schools will fill a large percentage of their 2011 entering classes by December 2010. This means that even though schools have deadlines for completing all the application requirements that range from October 2010 to February 2011, it is not a good idea to wait until the last minute to take the DAT, submit the AADSAS application, or complete any supplemental materials requested by the schools to which you are applying. 21 ADEA OFFICIAL GUIDE TO DENTAL SCHOOLS YouTube for Dental Students – ADEA Video Mentors ADEA now gives a voice to dental students on YouTube. com. Through the creation of ADEA Video Mentors, a channel on YouTube. om, prospective dental students and current dental students can share their experience and offer advice. The site features dental students (allied, predoctoral, postdoctoral) discussing topics related to dental careers, dental education, and the application process. Dental students submit videos that answer the questions predental students most frequently ask: What made you decide to go into dentistry? How was your path to dental school unique? What surprises you most about dental school? What would you recommend students do to prepare their dental school applications? A second component of the site, AADSAS Answers, responds to timely questions about the AADSAS application process. This component is a separate channel on the ADEA Video Mentor site that answers questions regarding the AADSAS Application process. AADSAS is the centralized application service (sponsored by ADEA) used by 56 dental schools. Students are invited to submit their videos or visit the site to learn more about being a dental student and the application process. Your participation encourages today’s high school and college students to become the health professionals of tomorrow. The videos are currently housed at www. youtube. com and can be accessed by viewing ADEA’s dedicated video mentoring channel, www. youtube. com/ADEAVideoMentors. The individual dental school information in Part II of this guide includes an admissions timetable for each school’s entering class. It is essential that you become familiar with the timetables for th e schools to which you are applying and that you make plans to complete the admission application requirements on time. SPECIAL ADMISSIONS TOPICS For those of you interested in advanced standing and transferring, combined degree programs, and admission for international students, this section briefly addresses those areas. Part II of this guide provides some additional information on these topics for each dental school, but you should contact the dental schools you are considering for more details. ? Advanced Standing and Transferring Advanced standing means that a student is exempted from certain courses or is accepted as a second- or third-year student. Advanced standing is offered at the time of admission to students who have mastered some aspects of the dental school curriculum because of previous training. An individual who has a Ph. D. in one of the basic sciences, such as physiology, for example, may be exempted from taking the physiology course in dental school. Some scho ols may also grant advanced standing to students who have transferred from other U. S. or Canadian dental schools or who have graduated from international dental schools. In these cases, applicants may be allowed to enter as second- or third year-students. 22 CHAPTER 2 APPLYING TO DENTAL SCHOOL Each dental school has its own policy on advanced standing and transferring students; see the individual school entries in Part II of this guide. But it is important to be aware that most students do not obtain advanced standing and that very few students transfer from one school to another. ? Combined Degree Programs Many dental schools in the United States and Canada offer combined degree programs that give students the opportunity to obtain other degrees along with their D. D. S. or D. M. D. Degrees that may be combined with the dental degree include: ? A baccalaureate degree (B. A. or B. S. ) ? A master’s degree (M. A. , M. S. , M. B. A. , or M. P. H. ) ? A doctorate (Ph. D. , M . D. , or D. O. ) Numerous dental schools have formal combined baccalaureate and dental degree programs. Combined degree programs expand career options especially for those interested in careers in dental education, administration, and research. They may also shorten the length of training where specific agreements have been made between the dental school and its parent institution. The undergraduate and dental school portions of some combined degree programs take place at the same university, while other combined programs are the result of arrangements made between a dental school and other undergraduate institutions. Sometimes colleges will independently grant baccalaureate degrees to students who attended as undergraduates and did not finish their undergraduate education but did successfully complete some portion of their dental training. Many dental schools also sponsor combined graduate and dental degree programs. These programs, which usually take six to seven years to c omplete, are offered at the masters or doctoral level in subjects that include the basic sciences (biology, physiology, chemistry), public policy, medicine, and other areas. See Table 3-6 in Chapter 3 of this guide for a list of dental schools with combined degree programs. If you are interested in more information about combined degree programs, you should contact the schools directly. ? Admissions for International Students The term â€Å"international student† refers to an individual who is a native of a foreign country and who plans to study in the United States or Canada on a student visa. Students who have permanent residency status in the United States are not considered international students; they have the same rights, responsibilities, and options as U. S. citizens applying for admission to dental school. Applicants who have completed coursework outside the United States or Canada (except through study abroad) should supply a copy of their transcripts, translated into English, plus a course-by-course evaluation of all transcripts. Application details for international applicants are contained in the ADEA AADSAS application. International applicants who are not graduates of international dental schools are considered for admission to most U. S. and Canadian dental schools. Each dental school has its own policies on admission requirements for international students. However, most dental schools require international students to complete all the application materials mandated for U. S. citizens and permanent residents. In addition, international students may be asked to take the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) or demonstrate English language proficiency. International students should expect to finance the entire cost of their dental education. ? International Dental Graduates Graduates of international (non-ADA accredited) dental schools may be eligible for admission into an advanced placement program. These programs provide a n opportunity for dentists educated outside the U. S. and Canada to obtain an accredited degree that is recognized by state and provincial licensing officials. The ADEA Centralized Application 23 ADEA OFFICIAL GUIDE TO DENTAL SCHOOLS A Guide to Preparing for Dental School Maybe you already know that you have a strong interest in dentistry but don’t know where to start. It’s never too early to begin preparing. Below are a few guidelines to help you plan your coursework and get in touch with mentors and other professionals who can help you along the way. Keep in mind this guide offers a general timeline for preparation. Many successful dental students have been non-science majors or pursued other careers before deciding dentistry was right for them. In fact, the guide can be used at any point in your academic or professional career. It is also helpful if you are not completely sure that dentistry is where you want to focus your energy and will help you decide if atten ding dental school is a commitment you want to make. FOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS ? Take science and math classes, including chemistry, biology, and algebra. If available, take Advanced Placement (AP) level coursework. ? Talk to people in the field. Call local dentists or contact the dental society in your city or town to find people who can help answer your questions. Contact your local dental society through the American Dental Association’s (ADA) website at www. ada. org/ada/organizations/ local. asp. Information on the ADA’s mentoring program can also be found at www. ada. org/public/careers/beadentist/ mentoring. asp. ? Check out ExploreHealthCareers. org (EHC) â€Å"Meet a Dentist† page at www. explorehealthcareers. org/en/Career. 1. aspx. COLLEGE YEAR 1 Fall semester ? Meet with prehealth advisor and plan coursework ? If your school doesn’t have a prehealth advisor, look into obtaining a copy of the ADEA Official Guide to Dental Schools to review the dental schools’ requirements. Although most schools require a minimum of one year of biology, general and inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry, and physics, specific requirements vary from school to school. ? Complete required predental coursework Spring semester ? Think about volunteer or employment opportunities in dentistry for the summer like shadowing a dentist or volunteering in a community health clinic. ? Complete required coursework and register for the fall semester. ? Research prehealth enrichment programs at Explore Health Careers: www. explorehealthcareers. Also look into the Summer Medical and Dental Education program for college freshman and sophomores at www. smdep. org. Prehealth enrichment programs can help you decide if a career in dentistry is a good fit and help you prepare for the application process. Summer ? Complete an internship or volunteer program ? If necessary attend summer school Service for Advanced Placement for International Dentist s (ADEA CAAPID) provides an online portal for applicants to submit materials one time and direct them to multiple institutions. Information about these programs, their admission requirements and the application process can be found at www. adea. org. 24 COLLEGE YEAR 2 Fall semester ? Schedule a time to meet with your prehealth advisor ? Attend prehealth activities ? Join your school’s predental society if one is available ? Complete required coursework ? Explore community service opportunities through your school (doesn’t necessarily need to be health-related). If possible, continue activities throughout undergraduate career. COLLEGE YEAR 3 Fall semester ? Meet with prehealth advisor to make sure coursework completion is on schedule ? Discuss dental schools ? Complete coursework and register for spring semester ? Visit ADEA’s website at www. adea. org to learn about applying to dental school ? Place order for the ADEA Official Guide to Dental Schools ? Res earch schools COLLEGE YEAR 4 Fall semester ? Meet with prehealth advisor and complete coursework ? Attend interviews with schools ? Notification of acceptances begins December 1 Spring semester ? Apply for federal financial aid Summer ? Relax and get ready for the first semester of dental school! ? Attend school’s open houses or events ? Prepare to relocate if necessary Spring semester ? Look into paid or volunteer dentalrelated research opportunities ? Complete second semester coursework and register for the fall Spring semester ? Review each dental school’s required documents early in the semester ? Identify individuals to write letters of recommendation ? Take the DAT late spring or early summer ? Prepare to submit AADSAS application. Applications become available on or around May 15 ? Complete coursework and register for the fall ? Schedule a volunteer or paid dental related activity Summer ? Complete a summer research or volunteer dental-related program ? If ne cessary attend summer school ? DAT preparation Summer ? Take the DAT if you have not done so already ? Prepare for school interviews in the fall ? Budget time and finances appropriately to attend interviews ? Participate in volunteer or paid opportunity ? If necessary attend summer school 25 Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Applying To Dental School" essay for you Create order

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Impact of Downsizing on Manufacturing Industries Free Essays

string(83) " firms now hire and fire much more freely, making labor incomes more pro-cyclical\." The amount of information on the effects of down sizing on manufacturing was not plentiful, however one main point that flows through all of the articles is that even though down sizing may be done to help a company it can end up hurting them in the long run. In the paragraphs to follow we look at the effects that downsizing has on people and companies as well as look at whether or not downsizing is truly the answer. Parker (2003)Reports that in 2003 the expected job losses among the manufacturing industries in Great Britain would create the effects of rising input costs and oil price increase on the job cuts; Downturn of the purchasing managers’ index for manufacturing; Decrease in the rate of manufacturer’s orders. We will write a custom essay sample on The Impact of Downsizing on Manufacturing Industries or any similar topic only for you Order Now So even though these cuts may be necessary he pointed out that it would have an overall negative effect. The Midwest may be the focus of manufacturing layoffs and financial woes(Link, 2005), but according to this survey, people who live in the area of the country that includes Cleveland and Detroit in the low- to moderate-income lax bracket are using less of their income to pay for housing than other areas of the country. The study, dubbed the Housing Landscape for America’s working Families 2005, revealed that from 1997 to 2003 the number of America’s working class who spend more than half of their income on housing leaped from 2. million to 4. 2 million. The study also revealed that immigrant families are 75% more likely to use more of their income to pay for housing than American-born citizens. Across the country there are 14 million people that spend too much of their income 10 pay for housing. About 35% of that group is low- to moderate-income families. In 2003, the critical housing need for the Midwest totaled 8. 7% of residents while the West Coast had a need among I6. 89 (of its residents. The South followed the Midwest for a lower critical housing need with 9. % while the Northeast trailed California with a need among 14. 2% of its residents (Link, 2005). (Palley, 1999) Reported that given the dismal economic performance that marked the period from 1990 to 1995, when downsizing was widespread, inequality widened, and real wages fell, the subsequent U-turn in performance has been completely unexpected. Moreover, it has been cause for further surprise that the economy has continued to prosper despite the East Asian financial crisis, which destabilized global financial markets, undermined U. S. exports, and unleashed a surge in U. S. imports. A second source of uncertainty (Palley, 1999) concerns the sustainability of the growth of personal consumption spending, which had been the principal engine of economic expansion in the past two years. In 1997, personal consumption expenditure contributed 59 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) growth, and in 1998 it contributed 85 percent. Meanwhile, in 1997 and 1998 nominal personal consumption expenditures grew 5. 3 percent and 5. 7 percent, respectively, while nominal disposable income grew only 4. 7 percent and 4. 0 percent. From the Federal Reserve’s perspective, this pattern is not sustainable since consumption is growing faster than potential output, which implies that the economy will eventually hit an inflationary wall. An alternative interpretation is that such growth is not sustainable because households must inevitably run short of financial wherewithal, and when this happens, an economic decline will ensue. According to this view, recession rather than inflation is the danger. A last scenario concerns the possibility of a full-scale crash or economic depression. Such an outcome is the least likely of the three scenarios, but it is still more likely than it used to be. In the 1960s and 1970s, the possibility of an economic depression was truly far removed. However, in the 1990s such a notion has surfaced as plausible, even if unlikely. Recent events in the global economy have added further credibility to this possibility. One reason a crash has become more likely is that many of the factors precipitating a hard landing are already in place, which means that many of them could be realized simultaneously. Indeed, many of these factors are linked in trip-wire fashion so that if one occurs, it triggers another. Thus a Federal Reserve-induced increase in interest rates could trigger a stock market crash, and this could then trigger an end to the spending boom. It could also trigger renewal of global financial instability. Similarly, a renewal of global financial instability could become the event that bursts the stock market bubble. Alternatively, a realization that the existing U. S. urrent-account trajectory is unsustainable could trigger a foreign exchange crisis that would renew global financial market instability, trigger a stock market crash, or evoke a Federal Reserve rate hike to protect the exchange rate and guard against imported inflation. Finally, if the economic expansion begins to flag of old age, overoptimistic projections of corporate profitability could pop, triggering a stock market crash. Also, a flagging economy could renew global financial turmoil by ending the U. S. conomy’s role as buyer of last resort, thereby undermining the rest of the world’s economic recovery, which rests significantly on export-led growth. However, it is not just this interconnectedness of negative factors that lies behind the increased plausibility of a crash. A second and more important factor concerns changes in the structure of the domestic and global economy that have diminished the presence of â€Å"automatic stabilizers† and replaced them with â€Å"automatic destabilizers. â€Å"These destabilizers work in a pro-cyclical fashion. On the cyclical upswing they make for stronger and longer expansions, but on the downswing they make for deeper and more sustained contractions. One important change concerns patterns of employment and remuneration. In earlier business cycles, labor hoarding was a common practice–firms held on to workers through downturns in order to retain their skills and avoid future hiring costs. However, the changed pattern of the employment relationship means that firms now hire and fire much more freely, making labor incomes more pro-cyclical. You read "The Impact of Downsizing on Manufacturing Industries" in category "Essay examples" It is also the case, especially in manufacturing, that overtime has become more important as firms have sought to save on employment costs by extending hours rather than hiring new personnel. Wage income is therefore more vulnerable to downturns since hours can quickly be cut back in a downturn. Finally, casual evidence suggests that there may have been an increase in the use of incentive pay, with greater reliance on stock options and profit-related bonuses. In a downturn these forms of pay are likely to fall off rapidly, contributing to a larger decline in household income and spending. In sum, the above labor market developments all make wage income more procyclical, thereby increasing the pro-cyclicality of demand (Palley, 1999). Another development concerns the general flexibility of wages. In the period from 1950 to 1980, recessions were characterized by a decline in the rate of increase in nominal wages. However, the important point is that wages still rose in recession. The recessions of 1981-1982 and 1990-1991 suggest that a new pattern may have emerged. Now not only does the rate of wage inflation slow, but nominal wages can fall. This is a very important development when it is considered in conjunction with the new debt-driven business cycle. The ability to repay consumer debt depends on the nominal value of income. In a recession the value of debts remains unchanged, but now wage incomes may show a tendency to fall. This will tend to increase debt burdens and raise the prevalence of bankruptcy, thereby deepening recessions. Just as developments in labor markets have contributed to the emergence of automatic destabilizers, so have developments in financial markets. Households now have significantly increased access to credit. In particular, households are able to borrow more heavily against their assets, thereby increasing their ratio of debt to income. Home equity loans are the most prominent example. Another is the ability to borrow on margin against stock holdings. These innovations and their spread give the economy a strong pro-cyclical impulse, but they also generate greater financial fragility. Thus, in upswings when asset prices and wages are rising, households borrow more and spend more, thereby lengthening the cycle. However, when the downswing occurs, households are now saddled with greater indebtedness and may also be subject to margin calls. This worsens the downturn and may contribute to even greater stock market corrections (Palley, 1999). The shift from defined benefit to defined contribution pension plans is another automatic destabilize. First, households are able to borrow against these contributions. Second, these plans may change household consumption and saving behavior since each month they receive statements showing how the value of their pension holdings has increased. Thus, as stock market prices rise, households cut back on saving and increase consumption, while some households borrow against their appreciated 401(k) accounts. However, stock prices are likely to fall in a recession, while the incurred debts will remain unchanged. At that time, households will have larger debts and reduced holdings of liquid assets. Finally, it is worth noting that prices in the stock market may have been at bubble levels for more than three years; recall that Chairman Greenspan gave his â€Å"irrational exuberance† warning back in 1996. This means that a considerable amount of borrowing and spending has taken place on the basis of these bubble prices, so the bubble may be deeply embedded in the balance sheets of agents. This means that a market correction is likely to be all the more severe. In effect, the size of the negative impact of an asset price bubble is positively related to the duration of the price bubble. Accompanying these changes in the domestic economy have been changes in the global economy that have contributed to the emergence of international automatic destabilizes. One change is the increased degree of international financial capital mobility. When a country’s financial markets begin to fall, it is easier for asset holders to exit, thereby creating a larger stampede for the exit. Foreign holders have an incentive to exit to protect the domestic-currency value of their holdings, and they now have a larger impact because of their increased holdings. Domestic holders are also more likely to exit because of reduced transaction costs and the increased sophistication of financial markets. They recognize that exit is the way to maximize the dollar value of portfolios when the dollar is under pressure. A second development is the increased international integration of goods markets. In theoretical terms, the foreign trade expenditure multiplier has become larger, which means that economic activity across countries has become more connected, making for greater amplitude in the world business cycle. In the 1950s and 1960s it was said that when the U. S. economy sneezes, the world economy catches a cold. Globalization of goods markets may have created a situation in which the U. S. economy sneezes and the world economy catches pneumonia. In this study (Wertheim, 2004), has developed a hypothesis which combines the effects of both economic impact and pre-disclosure information with the financial distress and potential benefit hypotheses developed in prior research in corporate downsizing. Instead of offering that these two hypotheses as competing and mutually exclusive, evidence are provided that supports the conclusion that these hypotheses simultaneously explain concurrent and additive effects on the stock price reaction to announcements of company layoffs. Finally, results indicate that the relationship between economic impact, pre-disclosure information and stock price reaction to layoff announcements depends on the relative dominance of the signals provided by the layoff about both financial distress and potential benefit. (Palley, 1999)stated that for policymakers at the Federal Reserve, the goal is a soft landing, though some (those who continue to believe in the natural rate of unemployment) think a bumpy landing is desirable since they believe that the unemployment rate is now below the natural rate. Thus not only is the economy expanding more rapidly than potential output, but the level of output already exceeds the level of potential output. Consequently, not only must the rate of output growth decrease, but the rate of unemployment must also rise back to the natural rate in order to avoid accelerating inflation. Since around 1980, there has been a determined drive to downsize American organizations (Budros, 1999) and there currently is no end in sight to this movement, even though studies underscore its technical-economic and human dysfunctions. This situation indicates a need to consider why organizations downsize in the first place, yet the shortcomings of the scholarly literature on this issue are conspicuous (Budros 1997). Therefore, in that paper he offered some systematic thoughts on the causes of downsizing. He developed a conceptual framework for exploring organizational innovation that features two under explored dimensions associated with this phenomenon, the basis of organizational action (rational versus irrational) and social context (organizational versus extra-organizational). He then portrayed downsizing as an organizational innovation and identified factors that lead organizations to downsize. (Palley, 1999) suggests that there are three possible future paths–a soft landing, a hard landing, and a crash. A soft or hard landing is by far the more likely outcome, but, that said, it is possible to imagine conditions in which a crash will occur. Japan’s prolonged hard landing, East Asia’s economic crisis, and the October 1998 near-meltdown of global financial markets have all added plausibility to such an outcome. A soft landing has the rate of output growth gradually slow to a level consistent with potential output growth. According to current consensus thinking, this potential rate of growth is somewhere between 2 and 2. 5 percent, though New Economy optimists claim it to be as high as 3 percent. A bumpier version of the soft landing (a. k. a. growth recession) has the rate of output growth slowing below potential but growth still remaining positive. Under this scenario, unemployment rises but the economy avoids a formal recession since output continues to grow. A hard landing has the decline in output growth such that it turns negative so that the economy is pushed into recession and unemployment rises even more. Finally, a crash involves a collapse in the rate of output growth, so that the economy enters a deep recession that may even border on a depression (Palley, 1999). The use of an organizational innovation framework to examine downsizing clearly has shed light on this phenomenon (Budros, 1999), revealing that organizations may make people cuts in response to rational organizational, rational extra organizational, irrational organizational, and irrational extra organizational processes. Of particular interest is the realization that scholars have focused almost exclusively on rational (organizational and extra-organizational) causes of downsizing, neglecting the role irrational forces may play in work force reductions. Perhaps this situation prevails because of the longstanding inclination among scholars to view organizations as efficiency-minded social actors. But if we are to develop a complete understanding of downsizing, then we must evaluate the impact of rational and irrational factors on this practice. This research investigates organizational practices in downsizing after a restructure and the effects of these practices on an organization and its employees (Labib, 1993), in particular, and on other stakeholders in general. Findings indicated that it is not downsizing that causes negative effects on both terminated and surviving employees, but rather the human resources practices used to implement downsizing; such as advance notification, method of termination, and amount and type of post-termination assistance given. This research further found that organizations often do not achieve their strategic goals after downsizing because they do not adjust their work processes and their human resource management practices to the new size and structure of the organization. Based on the literature review, a process model for the development and implementation of downsizing plans is proposed. The model is designed to provide a guide to be used by organizations when downsizing to ensure that the interests of all stakeholders are taken into account. The proposed model is tested through a field research in the form of case studies of five major organizations in Canada. The actual practices of these organizations are outlined and compared to the proposed process model, both collectively and individually. The differences are then analyzed and a new revised model is proposed that emphasizes, not only the downsizing process itself, but also what organizations must do during and after downsizing to ensure that employees’ needs are met and that the new strategic goals that prompted the downsizing are achieved. Two conclusions are drawn from this research. The first is that downsizing, if it is necessary, must be undertaken in a way that would cause the least amount of pain to those affected which is the ethical responsibility of good corporate citizenship. The second conclusion is that downsizing, in itself, is not enough to ensure increased profitability and goal attainment, but rather, it is how the organization functions afterward that will indicate whether or not the downsizing was a good or bad thing(Labib). The topic of off shoring generates extreme differences of opinion among policy makers, business executives, and thought leaders. Some have argued that nearly all service jobs will eventually move from developed economies to low-wage ones. Others say that rising wages in cities such as Bangalore and Prague indicate that the supply of offshore talent is already running thin. To a large extent, these disagreements reflect the confusion surrounding the newly integrating and still inefficient global labor market. Much as technology change is making it possible to integrate global capital markets into a single market for savings and investment, so digital communications are giving rise to what is, in effect, a single global market for those jobs that can now, thanks to IT, be performed remotely from customers and colleagues. The newly integrating nature of this global labor market has strategic and tactical implications for companies and countries alike. Information and insight about it are sparse, however, and executives and policy makers have little of either for making the decisions they face. To provide help for governments and companies in both high- and low-wage economies, the McKinsey Global Institute (MGI) analyzed the potential availability of offshore talent in 2. 8 low-wage nations and the likely demand for it in service jobs across eight of the developed world’s sectors (chosen as a representative cross-section of the global economy): automotive (service jobs only), financial services, health care, insurance, IT services, packaged software, pharmaceuticals (service jobs only), and retailing. These sectors provide about 23 percent of the nonagricultural jobs in developed countries. The study, which projects trends to 2008, aims to assess the dynamics of supply and demand for offshore service talent at the occupational, sectoral, and global level and thus the likely impact on both employment and wages in the years ahead. MGI’s analysis provides a panoramic view of the off shoring of services, as well as a number of useful conclusions, including: Off shoring will probably continue to create a relatively small global labor market – one that threatens no sudden discontinuities in overall levels of employment and wages in developed countries. Demand for offshore labor by companies in the developed world will increasingly push up wage rates for some occupations in low-wage countries, but not as high as current wage levels for those occupations in developed ones. Potential global supply and likely demand for offshore talent are matched inefficiently, with demand outstripping supply in some locations and supply outstripping demand in others. The more efficiently the emerging global labor market functions, of course, the more value it will create for its participants by allocating resources more economically. Both companies and countries can take specific measures to raise its efficiency in clearing demand and supply. Broadly speaking, a suitably qualified person anywhere in the world could undertake any task that requires neither substantial local knowledge nor physical or complex interaction between an employee and customers or colleagues. Using these criteria, we estimate that 11 percent of service jobs around the world could be carried out remotely. Of course, some sectors provide an unusually large number of such jobs. As a rule, industries with more customer-facing functions have less potential in this respect. Consequently, the retailing sector, in which the vast majority of employees work in stores, could offshore only 3 percent of its jobs by 2008. Yet because retailing is such a huge employer around the world, this would be equivalent to 4,900,000 positions. In contrast, by 2008 it will be possible to undertake remotely almost half of all jobs in the packaged-software industry, but in this far less labor-intensive business, that represents only 340,000 positions. Some occupations also are more amenable than others to remote employment. The most amenable to it are engineering, on the one hand, and finance and accounting, on the other (52 percent and 31 percent, respectively). The work of generalist and support staff is much less amenable (9 percent and 3 percent, respectively), because those workers interact with their customers or colleagues extensively. But generalists and support workers permeate every industry and therefore provide the highest absolute number of jobs that remote talent could fill: a total of 26,000,000. In practice, just a small fraction of the jobs that could go offshore actually will. Today, around 565,000 service jobs in the eight sectors we evaluated have been off shored to low-wage countries. By 2008, that number will grow to 1,200,000. Extrapolating these numbers to the entire global economy, we estimate that total offshore employment will grow from 1,500,000 jobs in 2003 to 4,100,000 in 2008 – just 1 percent of the total number of service jobs in developed countries. To put this number in perspective (in what is, to be sure, not a direct comparison), consider the fact that an average of 4,600,000 people in the United States started work with new employers every month in the year ending March 2005. Why is the gap between the potential and actual number of jobs moving offshore so large? Many observers think that regulatory barriers stand in the way, but MGI interviews indicate that company-specific considerations (such as management attitudes, organizational structure, and scale) are generally more powerful deterrents. Companies cite cost pressures as the main incentive to hire offshore labor, for example, but the strength of cost pressures varies by sector. Many companies lack sufficient scale to justify the costs of off shoring. Others find that the functions they could offshore in theory must actually stay where they are because their internal processes are so complex. Often, managers are wary of overseeing units on the other side of the world or unwilling to take on the burden of extra travel. On the supply side, developing countries produce far fewer graduates suitable for employment by multinational companies than the raw numbers might suggest. Nonetheless, the potential supply of appropriate workers is large and growing fast, and some small countries boast surprisingly large numbers of them. How to cite The Impact of Downsizing on Manufacturing Industries, Essay examples

Monday, May 4, 2020

Flat and Hierarchical structures Essay Example For Students

Flat and Hierarchical structures Essay They exist outside everyday awareness and are the most inaccessible to consciousness. From the research point of view, artefacts are the most accessible elements of culture. Even though artefacts are easy to obtain they dont necessarily represent the core culture of an organisation. However this system provides a guide to organisation culture. One of the main interests in organisational culture has been that this concept if applied correctly can enhance the performance of organisations. Supported by the success of the Japanese industry in the 1980s, which emphasised the importance of a strong company culture. It is generally assumed that getting organisation culture right has widespread implications both for corporate success and human resource management, by achieving widespread commitment for all staff to share the common goals and strategies. I believe that it is clear that organisation culture is likely to affect the success of business proven by the Japanese economy in the 1980s 90s. Western companies now try to adopt the same Task culture as the Japanese, however for existing companies this sort of change can be a very long and complex process. Now look at how these two organisations fit into these structures and cultures:   Police Force   Versace The police force essentially has a hierarchical structure and is very bureaucratic they are centralised and have mechanistic managerial styles. This organisation is divided down in to regions and is overall designed this way to ensure the same law and order is applied throughout the United Kingdom. I believe in this case that the structure of an organisation influences the culture adopted by the employees. The police force has thousands of employees and has to be structured in this way to avoid confusion and double standards. This structure creates a role culture within the police and branches off with sub-cultures, where divisions are responsible for a project or case and are left to investigate using there own initiative, this is task culture. The police also fall into Scheins model of Artefacts where they on certain levels or rank will dress the same in order to share in the same values and beliefs, also to be distinguishable to the public. The police have a sub-culture within the service to take more days off sick than the national average; this could be as a result of the structure and overall culture of the organisation, in my opinion to cut this sub-culture the police need to re look at uniting there employees to share in a common goals through reinforcing values and beliefs. Versace before his death was the head of his own brand of designer fashion retail goods. This family firm succeeded in having a flat structure that was organic and decentralised this allowed for quick and flexible change to a highly fickle fashion market. In this case it is clear that the culture of the organisation heavily influences the structure that it has adopted. The culture implied by Versace was a combination of power culture and person culture, because of his insistence and influence on the end product. As a result of his earlier drive and vision for his company the brand Versace lives on, still prestigious and marketable. When looking at both of these organisations it is clear that there are no right or wrong methods to management or structures cultures, but I believe when in business the styles you adopt can relate to the industries and sectors you enter. This however does not mean they are organisations in the same sector have to be homogeneous; Organisations clearly could save a lot of money and resources if they can find effective and efficient structures and cultures. BUSINESS ETHICS Business ethics involves the leaning right from wrong and doing the right thing. The right thing is not always as easy as it sounds and not always in the best interest of business. Ethical dilemmas are not as straightforward Should Bill steel from Rob? and Was it moral to lie to the boss? .u08c82ecfb5b41a31701638cff4055ae7 , .u08c82ecfb5b41a31701638cff4055ae7 .postImageUrl , .u08c82ecfb5b41a31701638cff4055ae7 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u08c82ecfb5b41a31701638cff4055ae7 , .u08c82ecfb5b41a31701638cff4055ae7:hover , .u08c82ecfb5b41a31701638cff4055ae7:visited , .u08c82ecfb5b41a31701638cff4055ae7:active { border:0!important; } .u08c82ecfb5b41a31701638cff4055ae7 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u08c82ecfb5b41a31701638cff4055ae7 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u08c82ecfb5b41a31701638cff4055ae7:active , .u08c82ecfb5b41a31701638cff4055ae7:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u08c82ecfb5b41a31701638cff4055ae7 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u08c82ecfb5b41a31701638cff4055ae7 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u08c82ecfb5b41a31701638cff4055ae7 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u08c82ecfb5b41a31701638cff4055ae7 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u08c82ecfb5b41a31701638cff4055ae7:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u08c82ecfb5b41a31701638cff4055ae7 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u08c82ecfb5b41a31701638cff4055ae7 .u08c82ecfb5b41a31701638cff4055ae7-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u08c82ecfb5b41a31701638cff4055ae7:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Miss Persuasive Essay Ethics are based on a moral principle, at a given time in a given situation. Some ethical decisions are based on a legal framework often transmitted by law, regulation or rules. Values that guide us in how we ought to behave are considered moral values, values like respect, honesty, fairness, responsibilities etc. When applied to business these are called moral ethical principles. The concept of ethics has become to mean many things, but generally its coming to know right from wrong in the workplace and doing whats right. Making ethical decisions that effect product/services and relationships with stakeholders. Business ethics has really become prominent since the social responsibility movements of the 1960s. In that decade, social awareness movements raised expectations of businesses to use their massive influence to address problems like poverty, crime, environmental protection, equal rights and improving education. An increasing number of people asserted this because the businesses were making a profit from using our countys resources, and now owed it to help improve society. The recent changes to culture of companies have been influenced by ethics with a need to show a good image to the public, the term stockholder was changed to stakeholder which includes everyone who has an interest in the company, from employees to general public. Human resource management was given greater influence to treat employees more fairly and respectfully. Formally there are two types of ethical practise. * Compliance based approach * Integrity-based approach Compliance based approach is where the company has to act within the letter of the law. If companies breach the compliance of law and regulation there are repercussions and discipline. For example in November 2002 BPB a UK plaster board company was fined 87million pounds for an organised cartel of price fixing with other EU plaster board manufactures. The EU fair trading commission, who seek to protect the interests of the customer, brought the case. Integrity-based approach this approach is broader and promotes ethical behaviour through the beliefs of a company today ethics are found in the workplace in codes of ethics, codes of conduct and polices and procedures. Ethical decisions are based on the cultural influences of business. For example the co-op banks marketing campaign says they do not do business with those that needlessly pollute the environment. Also there was a famous example of contentious ethical value when Nike plc employed children to make footballs for the world cup in 1998. At first it sounds terrible exploitation of children but the real questions that should be asked are; what is the social structure of the country? What age are children expected to work? Are they getting a fair wage in relation to the cost of living in that country? As an investigation into this assignment I have fully understood that this subject is a philosophy a social science. There are no real right from wrongs only the base to make informed decisions about the surroundings and environment we are faced with. I have grasped the basic principles of structures and cultures; I also believe that the key to running a organisation well, is having the right mix through a shared belief system expressed in a mission statement. I also can understand how culture can influence the ethical principles of an organisation.

Saturday, March 28, 2020

Allegory and Satire in Jonathan Swifts Gullivers Travels Essays

Allegory and Satire in Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels Jonathan Swift's "Gulliver's Travels" is not merely the story of "Gulliver's Travels" visits to the four islands but it tells something more significance. Some critics interpret the work as an allegory and also as a political satire. Firstly, an allegory is a form of extended metaphor, in which objects, persons, and actions in a narrative, are equated with the meanings that lie outside the narrative itself. The underlying meaning has a moral, social, religious, or political significance, and characters are often personifications of abstract ideas as charity, greed, or envy. Thus an allegory is a story with two meanings, a literal meaning and a symbolic meaning. Moreover, writers use allegory to add different layers of meanings to their works. Allegory makes their stories and characters multidimensional, so that they stand for. Allegory allows writers to put forward their moral and political point of views. A careful study of an allegorical piece of writing can give us an insight into its writer's mind as how he views the world and how he wishes the world to be. Secondly, satire is an attack on or criticism of any stupidity or vice in the form of scathing humor, or a critique of what the author sees as dangerous religious, political, moral, or social standards. Satire became an especially popular technique used during the Enlightenment, in which it was believed that an artist could correct folly by using art as a mirror to reflect society. When people viewed the satire and saw their faults magnified in a distorted reflection, they could see how ridiculous their behavior was and then correct that tendency in themselves. On the one hand, Gullivers Travels is an allegorical work. This allegory has been divided into four sections referring to four voyages of the protagonist Gulliver. Gulliver gives the detailed account of his visits to four different islands and tells about the various experiences he had undergone during the visits. He meets different people on different islands and studies their lifestyles. In other words, everything in it cannot be taken literally except by children. The mature reader will understand that swift has a serious moral purpose in writing those accounts of the voyages of Gulliver to different lands. An allegory conveys its meaning in a hidden manner not in an obvious manner. The real meaning, in an allegory does not lie on the surface but is hidden below the surface which we must probe swift is here mocking at the way human things behave. We find in the book a merciless exposure of different categories and classes of people kings, queens, politicians, lawyers, physicians, scientists, and others. There is hardly any institution in the civilized life of the European countries that escapes the scrutiny and the scathing criticism of swift much of the condemnation of human society and human institutions is expressed in comic terms, but much of it is offensive and corrosive. The voyage to Liliput in part-1 of the book contains the story of Gullivers shipwreck and his early adventures among the pigmies. In this part, as soon as swift turns to describe the politics of Liliput, that country ceases to be a kind of utopia and becomes the England of swifts time. A Lilliputian lord tells Gulliver: We labor under two mighty evils a violent faction at home and the danger of an invasion by a most potent enemy from abroad. The Lilliputian lord goes on to refer to the two struggling parties one party distinguished by its high - heeled shoes and the other by its low - heeled shoes. The reference obviously is to the High church and Low Church parties, or the Tories and the Whigs. The potent enemy from abroad is the island of Blefuscu which stands for France with whom England had been engaged in an obstinate struggle for a whole generation. Thus, the story of Gullivers first voyage becomes a kind of political allegory. The Emperor of Liliput would in that case be a por trayal of Gearge-1 who is a supporter of the Whigs by his determination to make use of only low-heels in the administration to the government and himself wearing heels lower than any member

Saturday, March 7, 2020

Special Needs essays

Special Needs essays What does it take to be successful when teaching students who have Special needs? It takes patience and professionalism, consistency, caring, and a sense of humor. There is not doubt about it, special needs students can be frustrating, infuriating, rude, disrespectful, and even dangerous. That is why it is important to be patient and professional when working with them. Teachers must always keep in mind why the students acts that way. Teachers do not need to take verbal attacks personally, but realize that they respect authority, and that a special needs student may not. Teachers must win special needs childrens trust over time, and it will take a lot of time. It is very important to be consistent with special needs children, and to create a predictable environment for them. Structure is very important to them because their out-of-school environment is usually very chaotic. When the teacher creates a predictable, structured environment, the special needs students can relax. An anonymous teacher once said, The systems are useful for keeping records and helping students see their behavioral progress, but that it meant nothing unless the teacher could hook the student. She meant that all the techniques in the world would never really work unless the teacher cares about, and believes in the student. Also, the student must care about, believe in, and trust the teacher. If this kind of relationship can be establishes, real behavioral change can take place. One of the greatest gifts we have is the ability to laugh at ourselves. Most problems in the special needs classroom can be avoided through humor. If the special needs teacher has a good sense of humor, he/she can teach the students to laugh at the situations that happen in life instead of taking things so seriously. Teachers have a real opportunity to make changes in students lives. Teachers often ...

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

What Can Be Done with Violence against Women Essay

What Can Be Done with Violence against Women - Essay Example The International Women’s Human Right Foundation has defined Human right with regard to Women in several ways. First under the umbrella called The Universal Declaration of Human Rights   it has been stated   that "everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, color, sex, language, religion, political or another opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or another status." (Article 2).secondly, The Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women states that "violence against women means any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life." (Article 1) It further asserts that states have an obligation to " exercise due diligence to prevent, investigate and, in accor dance with national legislation, punish acts of violence against women, whether those acts are perpetrated by the State or by private persons." (Article 4-c).the third and last definition is from The Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). Here, discrimination against women has been defined as any "distinction, exclusion or restriction made on the basis of sex which has the effect or purpose of impairing or nullifying the recognition, enjoyment or exercise by women. This is irrespective of their marital status, on the basis of equality between men and women, of human rights or fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural, civil or any other field."  Ã‚